That he died shortly after is assumed by some; in other accounts, he and Theodote retired to private life. The Slavic invasions of Eastern Europe which cut Constantinople from land contact with Rome were followed by the Arab domination of the Mediterranean that made contact by sea increasingly difficult, as well. Once in full power, Constantine embarked on a luckless war against the Bulgars in April 791 and another against the Arabs in October of the same year. She died the following year. During this period from the fifth through the eighth centuries, the papacy had come to rely increasingly on the support of the Frankish kings, who, after the defeat of the Muslims at Poitiers in 732, could justly be hailed as the defenders of the faith. Irene managed the council in absentia but when it was clear that her campaign for the restoration of iconolatry had been successful, the attending prelates were brought to Constantinople for the eighth and last session which was held in the capital. They are considered the most important person in history born with the first name of Irene. Constantine would die shortly after his mutilation, which was probably conducted in such a way as to achieve this result. 42759397, citing Constantinople, Monastery of St Euphrosyne, Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey ; Maintained by Find A Grave . Ruthless and ambitious, she is widely suspected of having poisoned her husband after which she governed the Empire as regent and sole ruler for 22 years. She is a former faculty member of the Humanist Institute. Her beauty alone seems to have gained her the marriage to Leo, son of the Emperor Constantine V Copronymus (740-75). Her usurpation of the imperial throne created a theoretical justification for the coronation of Charlemagne. With Irene on the throne, whatever the circumstances that brought her there, the Pope could legitimately consider the Roman throne to be legally vacant. Where was Princess Irene, Duchess of Aosta born? Information and translations of irene of athens in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. By 794, Constantine had a mistress, Theodote, and no male heirs by his wife, Maria. Usually, she signed documents as empress (basilissa) but in three instances signed as emperor (basileus). Athena Irene Karkanis: Height: 5' 7" (1.7 m) Mini Bio (1) Canadian actress Athena Karkanis began her professional career in acting in 1996 with several episodes of Stickin' Around (1996). Although it was said of Irene that she had the mind of a man, she was not a competent ruler and much of her reign was dominated by the struggle between her favorite eunuchs. A single daughter was born of this marriage; she eventually reigned as the consort of Michael II (820-829). During Theodote’s life, their residence became a monastery. Realizing that her fall was final, Irene had the intelligence to step aside gracefully thereby perhaps saving herself from physical harm. He married Theodote in September 795, though the Patriarch Tarasius objected and would not take part in the marriage though he came around to approving it. Plutarch of Athens. Three years later, the emperor Leo III, never an enemy of images before, suddenly destroyed a major icon and issued an edict against their veneration in 730. Constantine and Maria had one or two daughters (sources disagree). A son was born of this union but, although the patriarch was willing to grant a dispensation for the marriage, this son was considered illegitimate by the monks and the Church at large, and probably would never have reigned even if he had not died in infancy. Another victory by the Arabs reduced Irene’s support among the government leaders. Contributed by Robert H. Hewsen, Professor of History, Rowan College of New Jersey (formerly Glassboro State College), Glassboro, New Jersey. She was born about 752. Loop is the open research network that increases the discoverability and impact of researchers and their work. Her usurpation of the imperial throne created a theoretical justification for the coronation of Charlemagne. Irene of Athens (Greek: Εἰρήνη ἡ Ἀθηναία, Eirénē ē Athēnaía; c. 752 – 9 August 803), surnamed Sarantapechaina (Σαρανταπήχαινα), was Byzantine empress by marriage to Emperor Leo IV from 775 to 780, regent during the minority of their son Constantine VI from 780 until 790, co-regent from 792 until 797, and finally sole ruler and first empress regnant of the Byzantine Empirefrom 797 to 802. Known as the Second Council of Nicaea or the Seventh Ecumenical Council, more than 300 bishops attended this conclave which lasted from September 13 to October 13, 787. Irene and Constantine VI Plot Against Each Other. At the end of the deliberations, iconolatry was reestablished, iconoclasts were anathematized, and Constantine VI and his mother were hailed as the new "Constantine and Helena," in reference to the first Christian Roman Emperor and his pious mother. This was, however, one more reason that Constantine lost support. SwiftPapers is a global provider of sample essays on all academic topics and subjects.If you are looking for free essays, free term papers, or free research papers, you will definitely find it in our database! The collapse of Byzantine rule in Rome left the pope free of imperial influence but further alienated the center of the Church from the center of the Empire. The biblical injunction and the excesses of veneration observed among the common people, already cited, were two major ones but not the least were the scorn of the Muslims (and Jews) who accused the Byzantines of idolatry, the hostility of the Monophysite Christians of Egypt and Syria who emphasized the unity of the divine--and hence undepictable--nature of Christ, and the hostility of the army with its vast number of Armenian officers and common soldiers whose national church also rejected such holy pictures. The decision of the council was to end the banning of image veneration while clarifying that the worship itself was to the Divine Being, not to the images. The council was further hallowed in the minds of the Greeks by the fact that it was to become the last Ecumenical Council recognized by the Greek Church. In any case, the rupture of the proposed union does not appear to have overly disturbed the empress, who, increasingly ambitious, had good reason not to want a daughter-in-law of such eminent rank. Since that time, Athena has an extensive career in film, television and voice acting. The chief argument against the creation of images--that the practice violated the second commandment--was easily rejected by iconophiles on the grounds that the biblical injunction referred to images of false gods--idols--and that having revealed himself in the person of Christ and having bestowed His sanctity upon the Virgin and all His saints, the representation of real and tangible personages was valid. Irene of Athens (c.752-30 September 806), also known as Irene Sarantapechos, was the Byzantine Empress regnant from 797 to 806. Definition of irene of athens in the Definitions.net dictionary. The marriage took place in November. In 802, Irene was finally overthrown by a palace coup led by Nicephorus, her own minister of finance. Pronunciation: EYE-REE-nee. See Irene (given name). In 780, Irene arranged a marriage for her son with a daughter of the Frankish King Charlemagne, Rotrude. Exactly three years later, however, in January 795, Constantine shocked public opinion by repudiating his empress-wife, placing her in a convent, and, on October 7, 796, entering into an irregular marriage with Theodote, one of her ladies-in-waiting. Irene was born in roughly 752 A.D. to a distinguished Athenian family. Thus, it was on Christmas Day, in the year 800, during a visit of Charlemagne to Rome that the pope--undoubtedly with the king's prior knowledge and acquiescence--placed on his head an imperial crown, bestowing upon Charlemagne the title "Holy Roman Emperor" and thereby recognizing his vast realm as the restoration of the Roman Empire in the West. The army was demoralized and alienated by her conduct of affairs; the Arabs invaded Asia Minor as far as Ephesus and ravaged the frontier provinces until peace was obtained by the payment of a large tribute to the caliph, Harun al-Rashid. Fearing her son's growing independence, Irene pressed too far when she demanded that her own name precede that of his in all public documents. Bio; Background; Search people directory. Email; Follow on LinkedIn; Download vcard; Download PDF; More information. Irene of Athens, Byzantine basilissa, is comparable to Egyptian queen Hatshepsut, and Russian empress Catherine the Great. Read more on Wikipedia. Irene of Athens Biography: Irene came from a noble family in Athens. A member of the politically prominent Sarantapechos family, she was selected as Leo IV's bride for unknown reasons in 7… Diploma in Electrical Engineering, NTUA; Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering, NTUA; M.D., Medical School, University of Athens; Appointments. All subsequent arguments of a theological nature in favor of icons were based on his view, namely that the transitory image of the divine--i.e., the icon accessible to the senses--was a necessary link between man's perception of reality and the absolute reality of things divine accessible only to the soul. "Iconoclasm and Imperial Rule 717-842," in. The council was immediately dispersed by hostile troops recruited by Constantine VI to guard the capital and the papal representatives returned to Sicily, but Irene shrewdly had Constantine's troops shipped to Asia on the pretext of their being sent on a campaign against the Arabs. Our writers are from She accepted her fall from power, perhaps to save her life, and was exiled to Lesbos. In more far-reaching matters, whenever icons came under attack in the future, those in favor of their use had all the carefully thought out and well-formulated arguments of Nicaea II at their disposal. She gave birth to a son, Constantine, on January 14, 771. A military revolt against Irene in 790 erupted when Irene would not hand over authority to her 16-year-old son, Constantine. Meanwhile, during the minority of her son, who was only ten when his father died, the empress contented herself with removing iconoclastic generals and other officers, and seeing to it that her husband's five brothers were one by one forced into monasteries to forestall any potential coups. Loop is the open research network that increases the discoverability and impact of researchers and their work. This also brought the Eastern church back into unity with the church of Rome. By 780, Leo had reversed his position and was again supportive of the iconoclasts. Leo exiled his half-brothers. The controversy over icons continued; his ancestor Leo III had outlawed them, but Irene came from the west and revered icons. A reliable academic resource for high school and college students. Medieval Queens, Empresses, and Women Rulers, Biography of Anna Comnena, the First Female Historian, Five Roman Empresses You Shouldn't Invite to Dinner, M.Div., Meadville/Lombard Theological School. Irene, (born c. 752, Athens—died Aug. 9, 803, Lesbos), Byzantine ruler and saint of the Greek Orthodox Church who was instrumental in restoring the use of icons in the Eastern Roman Empire. Their birthplace was Athens. On the side of the iconophiles (image-lovers) or iconodules (image-adorers) were the papacy (with suitable cautions), the monks, and the female population. A well-born and highly educated court prelate, skilled in diplomacy, Tarasius was head of the imperial chancellery and de facto prime minister of the Empire. Leo, however, was a steadfast iconoclastwho, according to tradition, found that Irene possessed icons and thereafter would no longer … Canons of the Second Council of Nicaea. When it comes to Irene of Athens, who ruled the Byzantine Empire at the turn of the 9 th century, iconoclasm was fine as long as it wasn’t for religious reasons. To the broad masses, however, especially the women, and to the monks who were drawn largely from the ranks of the common people, the line between the images and the sacred reality they were meant to represent was easily blurred. one child: Constantine VI (January 14, 771 – about 797 or before 805), emperor 780 - 797. Because the Byzantine empire was now ruled by a woman, who by law could not head the army or occupy the throne, Pope Leo III declared the throne vacant, and held a coronation in Rome for Charlemagne on Christmas Day in 800, naming him Emperor of the Romans. Short bio: Short CV in pdf. In the clash over the veneration of icons, a patriarch, Tarasius, was appointed in 784, on condition that veneration of images was to be reestablished. One was with his five younger half-brothers, who challenged him for the throne. Of the thirteen possibilities, she selected Maria of Amnia, a granddaughter of Saint Philaretos and daughter of a wealthy Greek official. T: +30 210 455 7316 M: +30 6957 505609. Noted for her liberality, her freeing of prisoners and, above all, for her convening of the Second Council of Nicaea, and for her efforts to restore the veneration of sacred images, Irene was popular among the people despite the irregularity of her conduct of the affairs of state. Before becoming empress, she was consort to Leo IV from 775 to 780 and empress dowager from 780 to 797. Theodote had been one of his mother’s ladies-in-waiting. Upon learning of this, the troops of the Armeniac theme (military province) rebelled, secured the liberation of the emperor, and excluded Irene and her entourage of eunuch supporters from the palace. In planning their restoration of icon-worship in the Empire, Irene and her advisors moved with caution, shrewdly awaiting the death of the iconoclastic Paul IV, patriarch of the Imperial Church, before appointing as his replacement the learned Tarasius (784-806). Charlemagne was astute enough to realize, of course, that Irene's reign would one day end and that he would eventually be faced with an emperor legitimate in Byzantine eyes. To curry favor with the masses, Irene reduced some taxes, especially in the capital, and abolished others, moves that were to prove ruinous coupled with the ravages experienced during the Arab invasion. Irene consented to this marriage, which accorded well with her ambitions and which would legalize her position, but her fall prevented its conclusion. Irene of Athens, Byzantine basilissa, is comparable to Egyptian queen Hatshepsut, and Russian empress Catherine the Great. Part of the Isaurian (Syrian) dynasty ruling the Eastern Roman Empire. 683 Followers, 355 Following, 503 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from Irène D'Athènes (@irene_d_athenes) Next most famous people named Irene #2 Irene Cara Surname: Cara. Irene of Athens was one of the most ruthless, ambitious, and forceful women ever to hold a throne and, in her determination to prevent her son from reigning and her boldness in daring to become the first woman ever to hold the Roman throne, she ranks with Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt and Catherine the Great as a profound breaker with dynastic tradition. An East Roman (Byzantine) empress, Irene of Athens (752-803) convened the Seventh Ecumenical Council and restored the veneration of icons in the Byzantine Empire. As early as 782, she had arranged for her son, then only 12, to marry Rotrud, daughter of Charlemagne, king of the Franks (786-814), the greatest Western ruler of the age, and had a tutor sent to his capital at Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) to teach the German princess Greek and whatever else she might need to know about her future homeland, before her arrival. There, on August 15, 797, he was blinded at his mother's orders, a frequently practiced maneuver that by Byzantine norms rendered a member of the imperial family unfit to reign. To that end, a council was convened in 786, which ended up disbanded when it was disrupted by forces backed by Irene’s son Constantine. Each of these women's stories is a great one, wrought with controversy and struggle, but Irene's story is one that is most commonly forgotten. She was married by Constantine V, ruler of the Eastern Empire, to his son, the future Leo IV, in 769. Go past city highlights such as the Keramikos Cemetery, Roman Forum, and Ancient Agora, among other ancient monuments. Though strengthened by a military victory against the Bulgars and on his way to meet the Arabs in battle, Constantine's perennial ineptitude allowed his mother to concoct a clever plot oiled with bribery, involving both civilian and army personnel. Irene of Athens was one of the most ruthless, ambitious, and forceful women ever to hold a throne and, in her determination to prevent her son from reigning and her boldness in daring to become the first woman ever to hold the Roman throne, she ranks with Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt and Catherine the Great as a profound breaker with dynastic tradition. In 786, however, Charlemagne repudiated this brilliant alliance for reasons that are not clear but which probably concerned the council convened at Nicaea that year without his consultation and his own iconoclast resentment of Irene's well-known iconophile views. They apparently were the center of another plot to take over power in 812 but were again exiled. In 788, Irene held a bride show to select a bride for her son. Irene of Athens (c. 752 – 9 August 803), also known as Irene Sarantapechaina, was Byzantine empress consort by marriage to Leo IV from 775 to 780, regent during the minority of her son Constantine VI from 780 until 790, co-regent from 792 until 797, and finally sole ruler and first empress regnant o Irene of Athens is the most famous person named Irene. Technically, the throne was not hereditary, and the leaders of government had to elect the emperor. Irene came from a noble family in Athens. Bio; Background; Irene is a paralegal in the Asset Finance Group. Blog. The overthrow of Constantine VI and seizure of the throne by Irene had grave repercussions that indirectly altered the history of the Western world. Unsuccessful in the field and increasingly unpopular, in January 792, the emperor was rash enough to restore his mother to her former position of authority. Constantine V died in 775, and Leo IV, known as the Khazar for his maternal heritage, became the emperor, and Irene the empress consort. That she was a woman, and an iconophile offended many, and her late husband’s half-brothers again tried to take over the throne. Though the monks were furious with Constantine for what they considered his sinful behavior and feared anything that might weaken the authority of the Church which was the basis for their own power, Irene appears to have supported her son's marital escapade precisely to create a reason for removing him from the throne. Their Zodiac sign is ♑Capricorn. The years of Leo’s rule were full of conflicts. It, he and Theodote retired to private life that Christianity had overthrown Irene Sarantapechos was! 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